Types of Clutches
- Positive clutch
- Friction clutch
- Plate or disc clutch
- Single plate clutch
- Multi plate clutch
- Cone clutch
- Centrifugal clutch
What is clutch?
Clutch is a mechanical device use for engage or disengage (connect or disconnect) the driven shaft from driving shaft whenever required. Power is transmit from driving shaft to driven shaft. Clutch is widely used in automobile, in a transmission system while changing a gear ratio. It is one example of clutch uses like this clutch is use in various machine. There are different types of clutches and these are as follow.
Positive clutch is used when positive drive (torque transmit without slip) is required. In positive clutch two machine elements are used, one element is rigidly fixed to driving shaft and other machine element is free to slide axially on splined driven shaft and it helps for engage or disengage clutch. Machine elements of positive drive have jaws which help to connect shaft (driving shaft and driven shaft). Jaws may be in square shape, triangular shape or gear toothed. According to use different type of jaw machine element is used in clutch.
In friction clutch friction material is used to connect driven shaft to driving shaft and friction force is used to transmit torque. Friction clutch consist two plates or segments, one is fixed to driving shaft and other is free to slide axially on splined shaft. In which freely move segment has a friction material which is come in contact with fixed segment and friction force is developed and this force is used to transmit torque. In this way friction clutch work, there are different types of friction clutches according to construction. These are as follows.
In this category clutches are classified by the construction of clutches. In plate or disc clutch friction plate or pressure plate is used and for this, this types clutches are known as plate or disc clutch. Types of these clutches are as follows.
Plate or disc clutch
As per name single plate clutch consist a single friction plate or clutch plate. It consist different parts but principle of working is same as per discuss above that is by sliding clutch plate, engage and disengage of shaft is done. It is use there, where radial space is more like in trucks and buses.
Single plate clutch
Multi plate clutch consist multiple pressure plate and this pressure plate is use to develop friction force. And this friction force is used to transmit torque. The operating principle is same as single plate clutch, by sliding pressure plate engage and disengage of shafts is done. This type clutches use where space is limited like in motorcycle.
Multi plate clutch
Cone clutch consist cup and cone. Cup has inner conical cavity and cone has outer conical shape. Cone is inserted in cup and on outer surface of cone friction material or friction lining is used. When cone is inserted in cup friction force is develop and this friction force is used for transmitting torque driving shaft to driven shaft. Cup is fixed to driving shaft and cone is free to slide axially on splined driven shaft. By sliding cone engage and disengage is done. Cone clutch is not widely used because high axial thrust is required to engage or disengage driven shaft from driving shaft.
The name centrifugal clutch is come from the centrifugal force is used in clutch. Principle of working of centrifugal clutch is that, it consist clutch drum of circular shape, spider, helical spring, shoes with friction lining at outer side. Clutch drum is fixed to driven shaft and spider and shoes is connected to driving shaft. Shoes with outer friction lining are connecting at centre with the help of helical spring and it free to move or slide in spider as centrifugal force is increase. Centrifugal force is increase with increase in speed. Then shoes move outside and come in contact with drum or engage with drum and due to friction lining friction force is develop and this is use to transmit torque. And when speed is reducing shoes come back and disengage with clutch drum. In this way cone clutch is work. Centrifugal clutches are use in scooter where automatic gear transmission is used.